Author Guidelines



  • It should be short, clear and adequately reflecting the content of the article, should be written in capital letters and bold, and should not exceed fifteen words.
  • All authors in the article must have an ORCID number.


  • The abstract should reflect the purpose, scope and results of the study.
  • The abstract should be between 100-200 words long and a single paragraph.
  • The abstract, article title and keywords should also be in English.
  • Articles written in languages other than Turkish and English – in addition to English – should include the title, abstract and keywords in the article language.
  • Keywords should consist of at least 3 and at most 5 words.


  • Articles should be written on the template on the main page of the journal. Articles prepared without the use of a template will be sent back to be corrected in the pre-evaluation.
  • The article should be based on the latest TDK Writing Guide, and unnecessary information that goes beyond the purpose and scope should not be included.
  • Scientific methods should be followed in the article, and information such as the subject, purpose, scope of the study, and the reason for its preparation should be given adequately.
  • An article should have an abstract, parts of the main text, an extended abstract in English, a bibliography and (if any) appendices. “Introduction” and “Conclusion” sections must be included.

Main headings: All capital letters should be written in bold.

Subheadings: The first letter of each word should be capitalized, all in bold.

Figures, tables and photographs: Figures, tables and photographs should not go beyond the writing area, and if necessary, each should be placed on a separate page. Figures and tables should be numbered and named.

Footnotes: Footnotes should only be used for mandatory disclosures. The use of footnotes should be avoided as much as possible.

Quotations: One-to-one quotations in the article should be given in quotation marks and at the end of the quotation the source should be indicated in parentheses. Quotations less than four lines should be italicized between sentences, and longer quotations should be italicized 1 cm from the left and right of the page.

Book introduction and translations: At the beginning of the article, the cover image and tag of the book to be introduced (print date, edition, place of publication) should be included in book promotions. In translations, the identifier of the translated publication should be indicated with a footnote.


  • In the article, after the conclusion part of the study, there should be an extended summary (summary) in English, approximately 10% of the word count of the article text.
  • The extended summary should contain information about the purpose, problem, method, findings and conclusions of the research.
  • Articles written in English do not need to have an extended abstract.
  • The extended abstract should be submitted after the article has been approved for publication.


  • In-text references and bibliography should be based on the APA 6 version.

In-Text Submissions

  • Citations should be given immediately after the relevant part, in parentheses, with the surname of the author, the year of publication of the work/study and the page number, using a comma “,” in between. The dot mark indicating the completion of the sentence should be placed after the parenthesis.
  • In in-text references, the surname of the author followed by the publication date of the work should be included at the appropriate point in the text.

Single Author, Single Study

  • In the text, the surname of the author, the year of publication and the page number of the study are given; page number is indicated by the abbreviation “s.” for Turkish articles; “p.” for English articles.

Example: Çeviriye ilişkin bulgular  Türklerde ilk olarak uygurlar dönemimde görülür (Zengin, 2016, p. 17).

  • If the author's name is in the relevant sentence, it is sufficient to indicate the date and page in parentheses.

Example: Altbach (2001, p. 11), many higher education systems in the world…

Example: Altbach refers to many higher education systems in the world… (2001, p. 11).

  • If the author and publication year are indicated in the sentence, the author and date are not given in parentheses.

Example: The study carried out by Üçok in 2004 can be given as an example.

  • If a reference will be made to the entire study, the surname of the author and the year of publication are written in parentheses.

Example: Social capital is formed by strong ties between people in similar situations, such as family members, neighbors or ethnic groups (Harper, 2002).

  • If the referenced source consists of volumes, the volume number is written before the page number and is indicated by the abbreviation “C.”. “Vol.” is used as the abbreviation for volume in English articles.

Example: (Dilek, 1990, Vol. 2, p. 30)

Studies with Two or More Authors

  • For a work with two authors, both authors' surnames are included in each reference. In the sentence, the surnames of the authors are connected with the conjunction "and", while the "&" sign is used in parentheses.

Example: Balcı and Dilek (2003, p. 15) on this subject…

Example: (Balcı & Dilek, 2003, p. 15)

  • When referring to works with three, four or five authors, only the surnames of all authors are written in the first reference. For subsequent references, the abbreviation “et al.” is used after the surname of the first author.

Example: The first reference in the paragraph: Ercan, Bakırlı, Selçuk et al. (2013, p. 25) are the studies that show this approach.

Second and subsequent references in the paragraph: Ercan et al. (2013, p. 25) …

Example: First reference in parentheses: (Balcı, Dilek & Doğan, 2003, p. 18) Second and subsequent references in parentheses: (Balcı et al., 2003, p. 18)

  • When referring to studies with six or more authors, only the surname of the first author

Example: In a sentence: Balcı et al. (2014, p. 73) In parentheses: (Balcı et al., 2014, p. 73)

Legal Entity Authored Studies

  • If a work belongs to a legal person (government institutions, organizations, associations, working groups, etc.), name information should be written clearly and understandably when sending. If the legal entity name is long and has a well-known abbreviation, both the full name and abbreviation are used in the first reference, only the abbreviation is used in subsequent references.

Example: First reference in a paragraph: Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK, 2015)

In subsequent references in the paragraph: TÜBİTAK (2015)

Referencing More than One Study

  • If more than one study is to be cited in the same parenthesis, they should be in alphabetical order according to the surnames of the authors and separated with semicolons.

Example: (Demir, 1993, p. 447; Balcı, 1990, p. 91; Dilek, 2000, p. 16)

  • If references are to be made to different works by an author, the order of publication is from the oldest to the newest.

Example: (Doğan, 2000, 2008, 2012)

  • The letters a, b, c… are added after the year to the works of an author in the same year.

Example: (Gümüş, 2003a, p. 41)… (Gümüş, 2003b, p. 4)

Citing or Citing Sources (Secondary Sources)

  • If the primary sources could not be reached in the studies, the source cited in the reference

Referencing a Specific Part of a Resource

  • When referring to a certain part of a source, the abbreviations “p.” for page and pages, “…” for chapter, “…” for paragraph are used.

Example: (Demiral, 2010, p. 25), (Demiral, 2012, Böl. 3), (Demiral, 2002, Table 2), (Demiral, 2011, pRg. 2)

Personal Contacts

  • Information based on personal conversations by e-mail, telephone, face-to-face or other formats are shown in the text, but not in the bibliography.

Example: (M. Gumus, personal contact, December 1, 2001)

Verses and Hadiths

  • While the verses are referenced, the sura numbers and verse numbers are in order.

Example: (Quran 5: 3-4)

  • Hadiths should be cited according to the Concordance method.

Example: (Bukhari, As-Sahih, Faith 1)

Laws and Regulations

  • The name of the law or regulation and the year it was adopted in parentheses

Example: (İlköğretim ve Eğitim Kanunu, 1961)

Archive Documents

  • When citing archive documents, the abbreviation in the text should be as in the example, its explanation is in the bibliography.

Example: (BCA, Mühimme 15: 25)

Printed Sources with No Publication Year

If there is no publication date in a printed source, the abbreviation “t.y.” is used to indicate this in Turkish. In English articles, the abbreviation "n.d." is used.

Example: (Balcı, n.d., p. 25)

Referencing Comments in Parentheses

  • If a reference is required during a statement to be made in parentheses, a comma should be used for the date, not square brackets.

  Example: (For more detailed information on this qq. Gumus, 2010)



  • All sources used in the article should be included in the bibliography, documents and works that are not mentioned in the article should not be included in the bibliography.
  • References should be given at the end of the main text in alphabetical order according to the surnames of the authors.
  • References must be written in the Latin alphabet.


  1. Books, Reference Resources, and Book Chapters
  2. a) Single-Author Books
  • Author's Surname, A. (Year of Publication). The title of the book (italics). Published City: Publisher.

Example: Balcı, U. (2006). Poetik Yaklaşımlar. İstanbul: Kapı Yayınları


  1. b) Books with Two Authors
  • In books with two authors, the & sign is used between the surnames and names of the author.

Example: Şentürk, A. A. & Kartal, A. (2011). Eski Türk edebiyatı tarihi. İstanbul: Dergâh Yayınları


  1. c) Books with Three or More Authors
  • If the number of authors is seven or less, all author names are given in the bibliography.

Example: Akyüz, K., Beken, S., Yüksel, S. & Cunbur, M. (2000). Fuzuli Divan. Ankara: Akçağ Yay.

  • If the number of authors is eight or more, three dots (…) are placed by giving the information of the first six authors, then this section is closed by giving the information of the last author.

Example: Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., … Author, H. (Year of Publication). The title of the book (italics). Published City: Publisher.


  1. d) An Author's Books Published in the Same Year
  • The letters “a, b, c…” are used to distinguish the works of an author published in the same year.

Example: Sureyya, C. (1991a). Şapkam dolu çiçekle. Istanbul: Direction Spring.

                Sureyya, C. (1991b). Üstü kalsın. Istanbul: Broy Yay.


  1. e) Legal Entity Authored Books
  • In the author part, the legal person name is written without abbreviation. If the publisher (publisher) and the author are the same, "Yazar" for Turkish and "Author" for English should be written instead of the publisher.

Example: Türk Dil Kurumu. (2012). Yazım kılavuzu. Ankara: Yazar.


  1. f) Edited Books
  • When writing the bibliography of a book with an editor, the names of the editors are included in the author section and the abbreviation "Ed." is used in parentheses after the last editor's name. If the person who prepared the publication is to be specified instead of the editor information, the abbreviation “Ed.” can be used in parentheses.

Example: Kaynar, M. K. (Ed.). (2015). Türkiye’nin 1950’li yılları. İstanbul: İletişim Yay.

  • If a chapter in an edited book is cited, it is indicated in the bibliography, while the name of the editor is given after the title of the relevant chapter, not the author. The section title is not italicized.

Author's Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Title of the chapter. Editor N. Surname & Editor N. Surname (Ed.), in the title of the book (page range). Published City: Publisher.

Example: Yücel, C. & Gülveren, H. (2006). Sınıfta öğrencilerin motivasyonu. M. Şişman & S. Turan (Ed.), Sınıf yönetimi içinde (s. 74-88). Ankara: Pegema Yay.


  1. g) Translation Books
  • If a translation of a book from any foreign language into Turkish is to be cited, the name of the translator is indicated after the title of the book and then the abbreviation “Çev.” is used. In English articles, the abbreviation "Trans." is used.

Example: Payot, J. (2019). İrade terbiyesi (H. Alp, Çev.). İstanbul: Ediz Yayınevi.


  1. h) Books Without Author Name
  • The title of the book is written in italics.

Example: Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Ansiklopedisi (1977). İstanbul: Dergâh Yay.


  1. i) Specifying the Volume and Edition Numbers of the Books
  • If the book consists of volumes, the volume number is indicated with the abbreviation "C." in parentheses after the name of the book. If the edition is to be specified, the abbreviation “bs.” is used after the publisher.

Example: Kabaklı, A. (1992). Türk edebiyatı (C. 1-5). İstanbul: Türk Edebiyatı Vakfı Yay. Devellioğlu, F. (2002). Osmanlıca-Türkçe ansiklopedik lûgat (19. bs.). Ankara: Aydın Kitabevi Yay.

  • Note: If the publisher is a university and the name of the university includes the city name, there is no need to write the place of publication.

Example: Aybar, S.  (2014).  Hareket ve reji sanatı: Bir yöntem - bir oyun.  Ankara  Üniversitesi  Yay.

  • Note: If there are two different authors in the bibliography with the same surname and first letter, the names of the authors should be given in square brackets in the bibliography.

Example: Doğan, G. [Gözde]. (1996)… Doğan, G. [Güleda]. (2010)…


  1. Periodicals
  2. a) Journal Articles
  • If the journal is published in volumes;

Example: Yıldız, H. (2019). Eski Türkçe ile Yakutçanın karşılaştırmalı söz varlığı: Ünlüyle başlayan sözcükler. İstanbul Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı Dergisi, 59(1), 233-254. doi: 10.26650/TUDED2019-0010.

  • If there is no volume number;

Example: Çaksu, A. (2019). Bir siyasî içecek olarak Türk kahvesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 41, 369-386. doi: 10.21497/sefad.586654.

  • If an article without a DOI number has been accessed via the internet, the URL of the web page of this study should be given.

Example: Çelik, B. (2019). 16. Yüzyıl şairlerinden Fakîrî ve şiirleri. Eski Türk Edebiyatı Araştırmaları Dergisi, 2(2), 787-844. Retrieved from: .

  • If the content offered online is thought to be subject to change, the date of access to the website should be specified after the URL address of the relevant article.

Example: Tunca, A. & Durmuş, E. (2019). Büyükannelerin torun büyütme yaşantılarının incelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 41, 209-226. . Retrieved : 18.12.2019.

  • While citing popular magazine articles, the month information is also included after the publication year. If these articles are accessed via the internet, the access address should also be written.

Example: Çelik Sezer, İ. (2020, Şubat). Avustralya’daki orman yangınlarında son durum. Bilim ve Teknik, 627, 16-17.


  1. b) Newspaper Articles
  • In the bibliography, the abbreviation “p.” is used while giving the page numbers of the newspaper articles. Newspaper names are written in italics.

Example: Toker, Ç. (2015, 26 June). Unutma notları. Cumhuriyet, p. 13.

  • If the newspaper article is accessed via the internet, the URL address of the relevant web page should be given.

Example: Karaca, S. (2020, 12 Şubat). Kararlıyım ve yapacağım. Yeni Meram. Retrieved from:


  1. Theses
  2. a) Theses in an Institutional Database
  • Theses accessed from the YÖK thesis database should be cited as in the example.

Example: Gökçe, U. (2019). Orhan Veli şiirinde özne ve varoluş sorunsalı (PhD thesis). Retrieved from:


  1. b) Unpublished Theses
  • Author's Surname, A. (Year). Title of the thesis (Unpublished master's/doctoral thesis). Institution name, Location information.

Example: Onat, E. (1987). Çift serili korelasyon üzerinde bir inceleme (Unpublished master's thesis). Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara.

  1. c) Theses Accessed from Personal Web Pages
  1. Symposium and Congress Proceedings
  2. a) Published Papers
  • Author's Surname, N. (Year of Publication). Paper name. Editor/Preparer N. Surname (Ed./Pr.), in the title of the book (page range). Published City: Publisher.

Example: Bilkan, A. F. (2007). Amasya’nın Osmanlı dönemi  kültür  hayatındaki  yeri  ve önemi. Y. Bayram (Ed..), I. Amasya Araştırmaları Sempozyumu Bildirileri içinde (p. 611-620). Amasya: Hilal Yay.

  1. b) Unpublished Papers
  • Author's Surname, N. (Date). Paper name. Name of Event, City of Event.

Example: Köklü, N. (1996). Üniversite öğrencilerinin istatistik kaygı puanlarına etki eden faktörler. Devlet İstatistik Enstitüsü Araştırma Sempozyumu, Ankara.


  1. Electronic Resources
  2. a) E-books
  • Author's Surname, N. (Publication year): Title of the work. Access address.

Example: Ayçiçeği, B. (2018). Behiştî Ahmed’in İskender-nâmesi (İnceleme-Metin). Retrieved from:


  • If the publication year of the book is unknown, the abbreviation “n.d.” is used and the date of access to the site is written.

Akdoğan,Y. (n.d.). Ahmedî Dîvân.,78357/ahmedidivani.html. Retrieved : 22.12.2015.


  1. b) Citations from Websites
  • While the citations from the websites are specified in the bibliography, if the author and publication date are known, the access address to the site is written, there is no need to write the access date.

Example: Aydınoğlu, İ. (2020, 10 Şubat). Evinizde sevgi ve içtenlik dolu bir yaşam oluşturunuz.     Erişim     adresi: dolubir-yasam olusturunuz-1073174.

  • The author is known, but if the date is unknown, “n.d.” abbreviation is used and the date of access to the site is written

Example: Razon, N. (n.d.). Gencin meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörler. etkileyen-faktorler/. Retrieved : 13.03.2020.

  • If there is no author information, the title of the article is written in the author section and the date of access to the site is included.

Example: Çocuk ve gençlerde madde bağımlılığı.(n.d.). Retrieved : 13.02.2020.


  1. Laws and Regulations
  • Name of Legislation. (Year, Day and Month). T.C. Official Gazette (Number: …). Access address.

Example: Nükleer İhracat Kontrolü Yönetmeliği. (2020, 13 Şubat). T.C. Resmî Gazete (Sayı: 31038). Retrieved from:


  1. Written and Printed Works
  • Name of the author. Title of the work. Located Library. Collection, Catalog number, Foil/page spacing.

Example: Âsım. Zeyl-i zübdetü'l-eş‘âr. Millet Kütüphanesi. Ali Emirî Efendi Koleksiyonu, 132, 1b-45a.

  • In printed works, the name of the printing house where the work was printed is written instead of the publisher. Hijri dates are written without turning them into Gregorian dates.

Example: Ebüzziya Tevfik (1306). Lûgat-ı Ebüzziya. İstanbul: Ebüzziya Matbaası


  1. Archive Documents
  • Name of the Archive. Name (Number) of Document.

Example: BOA (Prime Ministry Ottoman Archives). Name-i Hümayun Book (10).